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International Journal of Environmental Sustainability and Protection
Frequency: Quarterly Published by lIKll

Open Access Review Paper
 IJESP 2022/06
Vol.2, Iss.2 : 13-30

Total Dissolved Solids and Their Removal Techniques

N. Pushpalatha1, V. Sreeja2, R. Karthik3 and G. Saravanan3*

1Chennai Zonal Centre, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR- NEERI), CSIR-Madras Complex, Taramani, Chennai- 600 113, India
2Environmental Biotechnology and Genomics Division (CSIR-NEERI)-Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440 020, India
3Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India

Total dissolved solids (TDS) due to both geogenic and anthropogenic contaminations, is one of the preliminary as well as essential parameters among others to describe water quality. It includes organic and inorganic components, heavy metals, salts, other dissolved substances, and others due to indiscriminate disposal of untreated domestic and industrial effluents, urban and/or agricultural runoff which exists in the form of micro or nano level in nature. Higher TDS levels in water severely impact health and the environment. For instance, it causes gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, genotoxic, respiratory, skin, and hepatic effects in humans. High TDS level (> 500 ppm) results in excessive scaling in household appliances (e.g., pipes, heaters, and boilers) thereby reducing their efficiency. Therefore, the removal of TDS from various water matrices is taking paramount importance to minimize its impact on health and the environment. Various TDS removal technologies based on the membrane, ion, and temperature gradient are employed to treat water. In this review paper, several TDS removal technologies for instance reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, distillation, ultrafiltration, forward osmosis, precipitation, desalination, ion exchange, electrochemical techniques, electrodialysis, electrolysis, electrocoagulation, and adsorption are discussed in detail.

Keywords:  Total dissolved solids, Reverse osmosis, Adsorption, Electrocoagulation, Nanofiltration

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Received:N/A; Revised:N/A; Accepted:N/A; Published:June 30, 2022
*Corresponding author; e-mail:

Citation:Pushpalatha, N., & Sreeja, V., & Karthik, R., & Saravanan, G.(2022). Total Dissolved Solids and Their Removal Techniques. International Journal of Environmental Sustainability and Protection, 2(2), 13-30.

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Copyright: © 2022  The Author(s). Published with license by IIKII, Singapore. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.